Exercise for your body and mind

Most of us should exercise more, and most of us know that. More exercise would be good for our health – but also improves our mental health dramatically.

The general recommendation is that we should exercise for 150 min per week. That’s not so bad – sounds like with half an hour a day, we might be fine. We can even break this up into 10 minute intervals and still get the same benefits. Kids and teens should move more, for them the recommendation is 60 minutes of intensive aerobic a day, at least 3 times a week.

 

Are you an active couch potato?

However, if we work out for half an hour per day and then sit for the rest of it, the benefits of the exercise does not outweigh the negative effects of the sitting. On average, adults only exercise 1 % of their day and sit for more than 8 hours! Unfortunately, the adverse health effects of sedentary behavior is independent of leisure time exercise. Only if you exercise more than 1 hour a day, and that means a moderate to intense work out – not just going for a walk – only then can you counteract the increased mortality rates due to chronic sitting. So, other physical activity is needed in addition to the planned training session at the gym during your lunch break.

Now, what are these adverse health effects of sitting? Most of us know that too much inactivity has negative consequences for the cardiovascular system; many have probably heard that also the risk for other diseases like cancer may be reduced by working out more. Lesser known is the relationship between sitting around too much and mental health problems.

 

Too much sitting can make you feel depressed

The risk for depression is increased by 15% for people who don’t move enough. This in turn relates back to increased mortality rates: people with depression die 8-10 years earlier (which is mostly due to somatic comorbidities). Of course, this is a catch-22: when you feel depressed, it is especially hard for you to motivate to work out.

One study was even able to show, that there is a causal link between sitting too much and depression: participants in this study were asked to sit for just additional 30 minutes per day – and these people showed an increase in their negative mood as well as greater stress induced inflammation.

The threshold for too much sitting seems to lie somewhere around the 6 hours per day. People who work eight-hour jobs might run into problems. Maybe you can ask for a standing desk or get yourself a yoga ball to sit on. It is also highly recommended to break up long periods of sitting. Take extra walks to the coffee room, the bathroom or the copy machine.

Exercise can even prevent future depression, as some prospective studies were able to show. One of them even claims that 12% of future episodes of depression are preventable with only 1 hour exercise per week!

One recent meta analysis  showed that exercise was as effective as psychological therapy and pharmacological treatment! The intensity of the work out didn’t matter, but the frequency did. Aerobic and resistance training both seem to be effective; the best results were found for a combination of both kinds of workouts.

If you feel motivated to start working out more after reading this blog post, take your training level into account. Don’t jump into a highly strenuous exercise program right away, because it will be a lot harder for you to stick with it. If you feel a lot of pain right after you worked out, you will start connecting exercise with feeling bad. Therefore, it will be harder and harder for you to get going again. If you start with a very light work out and increase it slowly, you can condition yourself to connect exercise with feeling good afterwards.

Whatever you choose to do, if you lift weights, run, do Yoga or even just go for brisk walk – as long as you get moving, you will feel happier!

Scientific literature:

Zhai, L., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, D. (2015). Sedentary behaviour and the risk of depression: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med, 49(11), 705-709.

Endrighi, R., Steptoe, A., & Hamer, M. (2016). The effect of experimentally induced sedentariness on mood and psychobiological responses to mental stress. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(3), 245-251.

Schuch, F., Vancampfort, D., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P., Reichert, T., … & Stubbs, B. (2017). Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of affective disorders, 210, 139-150.

Mammen, G., & Faulkner, G. (2013). Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. American journal of preventive medicine, 45(5), 649-657.

Bjerkeset, O., Romundstad, P., Evans, J., & Gunnell, D. (2007). Association of adult body mass index and height with anxiety, depression, and suicide in the general population: the HUNT study. American journal of epidemiology, 167(2), 193-202.

Phillips, A. C., Hunt, K., Der, G., & Carroll, D. (2011). Blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress predict symptoms of depression five years later: evidence from a large community study. Psychophysiology, 48(1), 142-148.

Wen, C. P., Wai, J. P. M., Tsai, M. K., Yang, Y. C., Cheng, T. Y. D., Lee, M. C., … & Wu, X. (2011). Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet, 378(9798), 1244-1253.

Brown, H. E., Pearson, N., Braithwaite, R. E., Brown, W. J., & Biddle, S. J. (2013). Physical activity interventions and depression in children and adolescents. Sports medicine, 43(3), 195-206.

Cooney, G., Dwan, K., & Mead, G. (2014). Exercise for depression. Jama, 311(23), 2432-2433.

O’Connor, P. J., Herring, M. P., & Caravalho, A. (2010). Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 4(5), 377-396.

 

Photos by Jason Briscoe and Alex wong on Unsplash

 

 

© Rebecca Böhme & Andrew Wold, 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

 

How to recover from stressful life events

(and a little bit on dealing with grief)

We have been writing a lot about how to deal with stress. But let’s face it: everybody will go through phases in their life where they experience intense stress. Even if you are highly resilient and an experienced yogi knowing all the breathing techniques – there are things that won’t leave you unscathed.

We have been through some tough times ourselves and know from personal experience that such times will affect you – not just emotionally, but on the physical and cognitive levels as well. We become tired, more easily irritable, our fitness level decreases. We feel mentally and physically exhausted. In addition, we struggle with everything that has a higher cognitive demand. It becomes harder to focus, harder to engage and our short-term memory is affected.

My (Rebecca’s, it’s me writing today) most intense stress experience comes from my student years, when I just started my advanced master’s courses in neural and behavioral science. At that time, my mum was terminally ill.

My mum and me, probably 25 years ago

First, I struggled with finding a balance between spending time with her, but still living the student life and fulfilling all the very ambitious course work at university. Then she died – and even though I knew it was coming, I felt completely unprepared. I managed to finish my master’s degree, even with good grades, but emotionally, I was a mess. My mum was my best and closest friend. We used to talk every day and about everything. At that point of my life, I was at a deep loss.

 

It took me several years to recover from this experience.

During these years, I noticed something strange: I could not really remember events from the months before her death. Everything seemed blurry. I mixed up names and people, did not remember where I knew them from, and even forgot important things that had happened. The time before my mum’s death, the most stressful time, disappeared in a cloud within my head.

I was studying neuroscience and soon learned that the hippocampus is affected by intense or chronic stress. Just recently, a large meta-analysis with over 800 participants with PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) confirmed, that the hippocampus decreases in size when subjected to highly stressful events.

How did I recover?

First of all, the best medicine is time. Traumatic events need time to be processed. Usually it takes longer than our social environment believes we need and is willing to give us. In the case of losing a close one, there is even a prescribed “normal” time window after which we are supposed to function normal again. In the diagnostic manual for psychiatric disorders, the time defined as normal, non-pathological grief has decreased dramatically over the last years. In the DSM version number 3, it was one year, in number 4 it was two months, in the newest edition number 5, there were rumors it would be reduced to only two weeks (I guess that was too drastic and didn’t happen).

For all stressful events, from an especially hard time at work over heartbreak to losing a loved one, it is important to be patient with ourselves and accept that it might take a while until we “get over it”. Often, we feel fine for a while, and then something triggers the memory of the stressful event or phase and we have to go through another time period of processing it. Be patient with yourself. Don’t get annoyed, if your brain makes you go through it again.

This is actually a fascinating mechanism: our brain gives us a break from processing the stressful life-event for a while. When we have become stable again, it will allow the memories to come back up. The brain uses the calmer times to process difficult experiences. Accept this and see it as a positive process: every time this happens, it is getting easier.

 

What else can we do to recover from stress?

First, stabilize your basis. Make sure, you are exercising, eating well and sleeping enough. After my mum’s death, I started exercising multiple times a week and eating more healthy food. Not really to combat the stress, but to deal with anxiety regarding my own health. However, it did have a positive effect. Especially the regular exercise felt extremely good. When we are stressed, our body prepares for something bad to happen. Stress is an adaptive mechanism to protect us. Our body prepares for the fight-or-flight reaction. So we should use it in that way it was meant to be: go for long runs or an intense sports class. That way, stress hormones fulfill their biological function and are less harmful than when we are sitting on the couch with our 100+ heartrate. People who exercise are reportedly more resilient to stress, which also means they recover faster from it.

Again, meditation becomes an extremely helpful tool during stress recovery. 

However, if you have not practiced meditation before, it might be the wrong time to learn it. If you are still in the stressful phase, it will be hard for you to sit down and calm your mind. Better to train meditation during a calmer time of your life to have this great tool ready, when you need it. If you are currently recovering from stress, don’t feel discouraged to try it out! But don’t beat yourself up – or the method – if it does not have the effect you were looking for. Try to exercise instead and come back to meditation practice when you are further in your recovery journey.

Some other tips:

Try a new hobby like painting or pottery. Start writing or dancing. Choose whichever form of art you are most drawn to and get lost in it for a few hours per week.

Listen to classical music. It has been shown to help your cardiovascular system during stress recovery.

Treat yourself with immersive and positive nature experiences, which can reinforce your recovery process.

 

 

Scientific literature:

Logue, M. W., van Rooij, S. J., Dennis, E. L., Davis, S. L., Hayes, J. P., Stevens, J. S., … & Korgaonkar, M. (2018). Smaller Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Multisite ENIGMA-PGC Study: Subcortical Volumetry Results From Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Consortia. Biological psychiatry83(3), 244-253.

Salmon, P. (2001). Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Clinical psychology review21(1), 33-61.

Chafin, S., Roy, M., Gerin, W., & Christenfeld, N. (2004). Music can facilitate blood pressure recovery from stress. British journal of health psychology9(3), 393-403.

Reynolds, C. F., Hoch, C. C., Buysse, D. J., Houck, P. R., Schlernitzauer, M., Pasternak, R. E., … & Kupfer, D. J. (1993). Sleep after spousal bereavement: a study of recovery from stress. Biological Psychiatry34(11), 791-797.

Adevi, A. A., & Mårtensson, F. (2013). Stress rehabilitation through garden therapy: The garden as a place in the recovery from stress. Urban forestry & urban greening12(2), 230-237.

Pizarro, J. (2004). The efficacy of art and writing therapy: Increasing positive mental health outcomes and participant retention after exposure to traumatic experience. Art Therapy21(1), 5-12.

Appleton, V. (2001). Avenues of hope: Art therapy and the resolution of trauma. Art Therapy18(1), 6-13.

Marcus, M. T., Fine, P. M., Moeller, F. G., Khan, M. M., Pitts, K., Swank, P. R., & Liehr, P. (2003). Change in stress levels following mindfulness-based stress reduction in a therapeutic community. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment2(3), 63-68.

 

 

© Rebecca Böhme & Andrew Wold, 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Photos by Edu Grande and Amy Treasure on Unsplash 

Getting to know yourself and your signs of stress: why it is so important

In our previous post, we wrote about signs of exhaustion and how to notice when you are becoming too stressed. Today, we want to motivate you to actually take care of your mental health. It is not enough to just notice that you are feeling stressed. We often know that we are stressed, too stressed even. Still, we ignore the signals that we are getting exhausted.

We often simply shrug our shoulders, tell ourselves to get over it and that it will get better soon. There is a reason for this: working hard is valued highly in our society and success in life is equated to success at work. It is not just society and its peer pressure that makes us work hard and ignore stress symptoms. For many of us, this happens because we like our work, because we feel responsible for our cause, patients, clients or students, because we want to make the world a better place. Many of us want to work hard – and on top of that we want to find time to spent with friends and family. Mixed up in this struggle we forget to take care of our psychological state.

So today, we want to remind you, how important it is to take signs of stress serious.

Not all stress has negative effects. Many of us enjoy a certain level of stress and even feel bored, if they don’t experience it. However, everybody profits from investing some time into reflecting on how much stress is good for him or her. Where the point of balance between good and bad stress lies will vary highly between individuals. To recognize this point will help you to prevent mental health problems.

Developing mental health problems, like depression or anxiety, can be driven by external events, for example experiencing traumatic life events. We have no influence over these things. For instance, a very common reason for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms is the unexpected death of a loved one. Adverse events during childhood and the stress level of our mothers during pregnancy influence, how sensitive we are for negative and stressful events in our life. If you belong to a minority, you are also at higher risk for experiencing mental health issues due to stress. But even if you are highly sensitive too stress, you can do things to train your resilience. It’s better to begin in a phase of low stress, so that you are prepared for more difficult times.

There are many good reasons to take care of our mental health

Body and mind are not separate entities. So if you strive to be healthy and live a good life, include practices in your daily routines that stimulate and heal our mind. We go to the gym to stay fit and eat superfoods to stay healthy. We invest lots of time and money into our physical health. We can do the same thing for our mental health. The brain is like a muscle that can be trained! There is evidence from a variety of studies for this: regular practice of playing the piano will lead to an actual increase in size of areas that control the hand and finger movements. Regular practice of meditation changes connectivity patterns in the brain. Trained Yogis have more gray matter in the insula, an area involved in perceiving the state of our body. Training of present-moment focused attention increases gray matter in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training affects the insular cortex.

That everyone brings with them their individual package of genetic background and early life experiences does not mean, we can’t take action to influence our emotional states. Neuroscientific studies show that we can still form our brains – we can actually teach old dogs new tricks! We can accept that we all have our individual history – and instead of dwelling on it, take active steps towards becoming more resilient.

Follow our blog to get inspiration on how to train resilience!

 

Some scientific background literature:

Langner, T. S., & Michael, S. T. (1963). Life stress and mental health: II. The midtown Manhattan study.

Van den Bergh, B. R., van den Heuvel, M. I., Lahti, M., Braeken, M., de Rooij, S. R., Entringer, S., … & Schwab, M. (2017). Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews

Valk, S. L., Bernhardt, B. C., Trautwein, F. M., Böckler, A., Kanske, P., Guizard, N., … & Singer, T. (2017). Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. Science Advances3(10), e1700489.

 

Photo by Riccardo Annandale on Unsplash

 

© Rebecca Böhme & Andrew Wold, 2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Why do you need the LifeSmyles method?

Do you often feel stressed? Do you feel exhausted after a long day at work? Does it seem like you can’t find time to take care of yourself?

When we experience periods of stress in our life, we are at risk of developing a depression, burn-out or an exhaustion syndrome. You need to engage in positive change, before it gets there. With Lifesmyles we want to share our experience and knowledge on how to avoid getting caught in this downwards spiral of stress and depression.

 

What does LifeSmyles offer?

A simple system that can be integrated into everyday life. You make a commitment. Not the kind that puts hefty pressure on yourself to change your whole life; no, that would just be another source of stress. We don’t want you to feel bad because you missed a workout or you ate junk food, or spent your evening watching shows you don’t even like. Instead, we want to show you how and when to implement new habits. You can decide yourself if you want to take small steps and implement just a few of our techniques in your life or take a big step to evoke greater change.

Our method is based on scientific findings on individual well-being. We want to show you many little pieces to the puzzle of a happier, calmer and more relaxed lifestyle. You can work them into your daily routines and into your mindset. By the way, let’s not focus on being “happy”. Our brains can not maintain a constant level of highly enthusiastic feelings of happiness. After a high phase you are at risk for hitting a low phase. It is better to strive for feeling content and balanced and to include and accept feeling sad every once in a while. We can help you with the details, and hopefully have some smiles along the way.

 

Who is behind this project?

LifeSmyles is being developed by two scientists, Dr. Rebecca Böhme and Dr. Andrew Wold. We both have an extensive interdisciplinary background in biology, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience. Our system is shaped by our journey as parents, world travelers, as a couple in the best and more difficult times, and as individuals who have experienced crises. Our methods synthesizes modern research with our own experiences. We want to incorporate our knowledge with you, to help formulate an easy-to-follow method that can increase a feeling of balance, lower stress and reactivity, and to develop positive and meaningful experiences.

 

How can I participate in the LifeSmyles method? 

You can always follow our blog posts, our instagram and facebook account. The most important step is to decide that you want positive change in your life. You don’t need to reconstruct your whole life, but take the first step, a small commitment that can lead to something more fulfilling. You yourself decide when and even if you want to take small steps. Perhaps you only want to implement some of our techniques, great. Perhaps you want to incorporate all our lessons, fantastic! Doing so will allow yourself to evoke greater change.

Try to engage friends, family or your partner to take steps towards this goal together. It is always easier to develop new habits in a group or with an emotionally close person. Motivate each other.

We will soon offer subscriptions to our videos introducing you to our method. We will also offer seminars, where you can take a deeper dive into our method.

 

Welcome to LifeSmyles!

 

 

Top photo by Allef Vinicius on Unsplash

© Rebecca Böhme & Andrew Wold, 2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.