A luxury problem

“That which annoys us does not necessarily injure us; but we are driven into wild rage by our luxurious lives, so that whatever does not answer our whims arouses our anger” – Seneca

A luxurious life with a little rage

I wanted to start with this quote to bring up a feeling many of us have experienced: overreacting. Whether our travel is delayed, our food order is wrong, or we feel wronged, it’s not uncommon to overreact. My favorite way to overreact is to swear out loud at any number of minor indiscretions; stubbing my toe, not being able to merge easily, not being finished on time, all these produce a predictable chain of swear words that flow out of me as naturally as water down a mountain stream. When I reflect on my own reaction, I’ve tried to justify that it has utility; it helps me feel a little better by releasing some pent up steam. Unfortunately, that’s only a cover story, reacting too much just makes me more likely to overreact to the next event, and my extra vigilance only hinders me from focusing on my task at hand.

The problem, we live in a time where our immediate surroundings provide everything that is necessary for our survival. Seneca is right; our luxurious lives put us in a position of feeling vexed for being made even slightly discomforted.  It used to be worse for me, it has gotten better, and I’d like to share with you how I’ve trained to be less reactive.

Time to implement change

There are two ways you can go about becoming less reactive, the first is learning to prolong your reaction. Basically, you give yourself time to find what the proper reaction should be before you let any emotion take hold in an automatic sense. My favorite technique to do this comes from a concept called “principle negotiation” developed by Roger Fischer and William Ury. In William Ury’s book “Getting Past No”, Ury describes a method to not react to what your partner is saying by “going to the balcony”. This means to imagine the situation as though you are viewing it from above; a balcony overlooking the situation. I like this visualization, it provides the distancing from a given situation, but keeps the vantage point local to the whole of the situation.

umit-bulut-143016--286x300 A luxury problemThe second technique is something we have discussed already: gratitude. It has been shown that people who have high levels of gratitude, have a higher capacity for patience. In experiments looking at how gratitude effects temporal discounting, i.e. prolonging a satisfying experience into the future, individuals with higher levels of gratitude showed more patience when being able to delay an incentive. Gratitude can help you up to the balcony.

How can we implement this in our everyday lives? First, wait until the next time you overreact (or you may be able to draw on a very recent event). After the fact, consider the value of your overreaction. I’ve literally written “overreaction”, but was your reaction nevertheless well-measured? Did it make you feel better or did it put you in a state that made you feel on edge,  annoyed, and ready to continue reacting in a short fused manner? Replay the event as though you first went to the balcony, view the situation from above, and see if you would have reacted differently given time and perspective. Ideally, next time try to first take this distanced perspective, but don’t be discouraged if you find this difficult. We are beings preset to react automatically, it’s useful, but not easy to gain a distanced perspective from our own actions and reactions.

Moving on to gratitude, how can we use this? A study of college students seeking mental health services at a university offers us some guidance. In this study participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. All three groups received counseling services, but the first group was also instructed to write one letter of gratitude to another person each week for three weeks, whereas the second group was asked to write a letter depicting their deepest thoughts and feelings about negative experiences. The third group was the control group, and didn’t have to do any writing activity. I should note that the students were almost all coming for complaints of depression or anxiety. The results of this study showed that those who did in fact write a letter of gratitude reported significantly better mental health at 4-weeks and 12-weeks, compared with the other two groups. Before you cast this result aside – perhaps you are not a college student seeking mental services at a university health care, consider a few more points of the analysis of this study.

First, this increased mental health recovery happened whether this letter was sent to someone or not. Even if you do not successfully communicate your gratitude to someone, you experience a mental health benefit. Next, the most important aspect of these gratitude letters was a lack of negative emotional words expressed (it doesn’t always benefit us to expel negativity, in fact it could simply propagate more negativity). The most lasting effects came from those who expressed positive emotion words and “we” language, as opposed to “I” language. Still, the most important aspect for effective gratitude seemed to be removing negativity words altogether (focus on the positive). Lastly, this gratitude effect was not immediate; it started around 3 weeks into the exercise. Even though we want an effect now, planting the seeds to a better mental state can take time, don’t get discouraged if you don’t feel better the next day, give gratitude time and give it space to make a difference.

To go back to Seneca’s quote about raging even though we have a luxurious life. At times, it can seem like we have just about everything, but what’s missing or not delivered to us, arouses that inner rage. It happens, but that doesn’t mean we can’t take action against it ourselves. Take a moment to reflect on something that has already happened, if you can, go to the balcony and prolong the time you take to react. Practice gratitude, literally focus on positive and avoid the negative. Why not write a letter? You don’t even have to send it, you still benefit from the exercise of putting your positive words to paper. How about trying a one month gratitude letter writing challenge? I gotta tell you, I feel better for sharing this with you, so spread the message and get a piece of this gratitude for yourself!
umit-bulut-143016--286x300 A luxury problem

Literature:

Ury, W. (1992). Getting past no: Negotiating with difficult people. Random House.

Wong, Y. J., Owen, J., Gabana, N. T., Brown, J. W., McInnis, S., Toth, P., & Gilman, L. (2018). Does gratitude writing improve the mental health of psychotherapy clients? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy Research, 28(2), 192-202.

Dickens, L., & DeSteno, D. (2016). The grateful are patient: Heightened daily gratitude is associated with attenuated temporal discounting. Emotion, 16(4), 421.

 

Cover photo by Diego Geraldi on Unsplash

In-text photo by Ümit Bulut on Unsplash

 

© Andrew Wold & Rebecca Böhme, 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Exercise for your body and mind

Most of us should exercise more, and most of us know that. More exercise would be good for our health – but also improves our mental health dramatically.

The general recommendation is that we should exercise for 150 min per week. That’s not so bad – sounds like with half an hour a day, we might be fine. We can even break this up into 10 minute intervals and still get the same benefits. Kids and teens should move more, for them the recommendation is 60 minutes of intensive aerobic a day, at least 3 times a week.

 

Are you an active couch potato?

However, if we work out for half an hour per day and then sit for the rest of it, the benefits of the exercise does not outweigh the negative effects of the sitting. On average, adults only exercise 1 % of their day and sit for more than 8 hours! Unfortunately, the adverse health effects of sedentary behavior is independent of leisure time exercise. Only if you exercise more than 1 hour a day, and that means a moderate to intense work out – not just going for a walk – only then can you counteract the increased mortality rates due to chronic sitting. So, other physical activity is needed in addition to the planned training session at the gym during your lunch break.

Now, what are these adverse health effects of sitting? Most of us know that too much inactivity has negative consequences for the cardiovascular system; many have probably heard that also the risk for other diseases like cancer may be reduced by working out more. Lesser known is the relationship between sitting around too much and mental health problems.
e2b49f7cce0f43f3934f69b70bf2911f Exercise for your body and mind

 

Too much sitting can make you feel depressed

The risk for depression is increased by 15% for people who don’t move enough. This in turn relates back to increased mortality rates: people with depression die 8-10 years earlier (which is mostly due to somatic comorbidities). Of course, this is a catch-22: when you feel depressed, it is especially hard for you to motivate to work out.

One study was even able to show, that there is a causal link between sitting too much and depression: participants in this study were asked to sit for just additional 30 minutes per day – and these people showed an increase in their negative mood as well as greater stress induced inflammation.

The threshold for too much sitting seems to lie somewhere around the 6 hours per day. People who work eight-hour jobs might run into problems. Maybe you can ask for a standing desk or get yourself a yoga ball to sit on. It is also highly recommended to break up long periods of sitting. Take extra walks to the coffee room, the bathroom or the copy machine.

Exercise can even prevent future depression, as some prospective studies were able to show. One of them even claims that 12% of future episodes of depression are preventable with only 1 hour exercise per week!

One recent meta analysis  showed that exercise was as effective as psychological therapy and pharmacological treatment! The intensity of the work out didn’t matter, but the frequency did. Aerobic and resistance training both seem to be effective; the best results were found for a combination of both kinds of workouts.

If you feel motivated to start working out more after reading this blog post, take your training level into account. Don’t jump into a highly strenuous exercise program right away, because it will be a lot harder for you to stick with it. If you feel a lot of pain right after you worked out, you will start connecting exercise with feeling bad. Therefore, it will be harder and harder for you to get going again. If you start with a very light work out and increase it slowly, you can condition yourself to connect exercise with feeling good afterwards.

Whatever you choose to do, if you lift weights, run, do Yoga or even just go for brisk walk – as long as you get moving, you will feel happier!

e2b49f7cce0f43f3934f69b70bf2911f Exercise for your body and mind

Scientific literature:

Zhai, L., Zhang, Y., & Zhang, D. (2015). Sedentary behaviour and the risk of depression: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med, 49(11), 705-709.

Endrighi, R., Steptoe, A., & Hamer, M. (2016). The effect of experimentally induced sedentariness on mood and psychobiological responses to mental stress. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(3), 245-251.

Schuch, F., Vancampfort, D., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P., Reichert, T., … & Stubbs, B. (2017). Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of affective disorders, 210, 139-150.

Mammen, G., & Faulkner, G. (2013). Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. American journal of preventive medicine, 45(5), 649-657.

Bjerkeset, O., Romundstad, P., Evans, J., & Gunnell, D. (2007). Association of adult body mass index and height with anxiety, depression, and suicide in the general population: the HUNT study. American journal of epidemiology, 167(2), 193-202.

Phillips, A. C., Hunt, K., Der, G., & Carroll, D. (2011). Blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress predict symptoms of depression five years later: evidence from a large community study. Psychophysiology, 48(1), 142-148.

Wen, C. P., Wai, J. P. M., Tsai, M. K., Yang, Y. C., Cheng, T. Y. D., Lee, M. C., … & Wu, X. (2011). Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet, 378(9798), 1244-1253.

Brown, H. E., Pearson, N., Braithwaite, R. E., Brown, W. J., & Biddle, S. J. (2013). Physical activity interventions and depression in children and adolescents. Sports medicine, 43(3), 195-206.

Cooney, G., Dwan, K., & Mead, G. (2014). Exercise for depression. Jama, 311(23), 2432-2433.

O’Connor, P. J., Herring, M. P., & Caravalho, A. (2010). Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 4(5), 377-396.

 

Photos by Jason Briscoe and Alex wong on Unsplash

 

 

© Rebecca Böhme & Andrew Wold, 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

 

Getting to know yourself and your signs of stress: why it is so important

In our previous post, we wrote about signs of exhaustion and how to notice when you are becoming too stressed. Today, we want to motivate you to actually take care of your mental health. It is not enough to just notice that you are feeling stressed. We often know that we are stressed, too stressed even. Still, we ignore the signals that we are getting exhausted.

We often simply shrug our shoulders, tell ourselves to get over it and that it will get better soon. There is a reason for this: working hard is valued highly in our society and success in life is equated to success at work. It is not just society and its peer pressure that makes us work hard and ignore stress symptoms. For many of us, this happens because we like our work, because we feel responsible for our cause, patients, clients or students, because we want to make the world a better place. Many of us want to work hard – and on top of that we want to find time to spent with friends and family. Mixed up in this struggle we forget to take care of our psychological state.

So today, we want to remind you, how important it is to take signs of stress serious.

Not all stress has negative effects. Many of us enjoy a certain level of stress and even feel bored, if they don’t experience it. However, everybody profits from investing some time into reflecting on how much stress is good for him or her. Where the point of balance between good and bad stress lies will vary highly between individuals. To recognize this point will help you to prevent mental health problems.

Developing mental health problems, like depression or anxiety, can be driven by external events, for example experiencing traumatic life events. We have no influence over these things. For instance, a very common reason for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms is the unexpected death of a loved one. Adverse events during childhood and the stress level of our mothers during pregnancy influence, how sensitive we are for negative and stressful events in our life. If you belong to a minority, you are also at higher risk for experiencing mental health issues due to stress. But even if you are highly sensitive too stress, you can do things to train your resilience. It’s better to begin in a phase of low stress, so that you are prepared for more difficult times.

There are many good reasons to take care of our mental health

Body and mind are not separate entities. So if you strive to be healthy and live a good life, include practices in your daily routines that stimulate and heal our mind. We go to the gym to stay fit and eat superfoods to stay healthy. We invest lots of time and money into our physical health. We can do the same thing for our mental health. The brain is like a muscle that can be trained! There is evidence from a variety of studies for this: regular practice of playing the piano will lead to an actual increase in size of areas that control the hand and finger movements. Regular practice of meditation changes connectivity patterns in the brain. Trained Yogis have more gray matter in the insula, an area involved in perceiving the state of our body. Training of present-moment focused attention increases gray matter in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training affects the insular cortex.

That everyone brings with them their individual package of genetic background and early life experiences does not mean, we can’t take action to influence our emotional states. Neuroscientific studies show that we can still form our brains – we can actually teach old dogs new tricks! We can accept that we all have our individual history – and instead of dwelling on it, take active steps towards becoming more resilient.

Follow our blog to get inspiration on how to train resilience!

 

Some scientific background literature:

Langner, T. S., & Michael, S. T. (1963). Life stress and mental health: II. The midtown Manhattan study.

Van den Bergh, B. R., van den Heuvel, M. I., Lahti, M., Braeken, M., de Rooij, S. R., Entringer, S., … & Schwab, M. (2017). Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews

Valk, S. L., Bernhardt, B. C., Trautwein, F. M., Böckler, A., Kanske, P., Guizard, N., … & Singer, T. (2017). Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. Science Advances3(10), e1700489.

 

Photo by Riccardo Annandale on Unsplash

 
6f6db3cfcaef4897b4fc4871fd06fc71 Getting to know yourself and your signs of stress: why it is so important

© Rebecca Böhme & Andrew Wold, 2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to the authors with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.